Water Disposal

[1] Annex C contains a Glossary of terms that may be unfamiliar to some readers.

[2] The terms permeability and hydraulic conductivity are both used to mean the ease with which water travels through saturated, porous media. In this book the term permeability is used pref­erentially. In particular the ‘coefficient of hydraulic conductivity’ and the term ‘coefficient of permeability’ are identical and given the symbol K.

[3] Co-ordinating Author:

23 S. Erlingsson

Haskoli Islands/University of Iceland, Iceland & Statens vag-och transportforskningsinstitut/ Swedish National Road and Transport Institute, Sweden e-mail: sigger@hi. is

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_2, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[4] Co-ordinating Author:

23 S. Erlingsson

Haskoli Islands/University of Iceland, Iceland & Statens vag-och transportforskningsinstitut/ Swedish National Road and Transport Institute, Sweden e-mail: sigger@hi. is

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_3, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[5] Reference should be made to Chapter 10, Section 10.3, and to Eqs. 10.1-10.4 for an explanation of FWD assessment and of BCI and SCI.

[6] Co-ordinating Author:

23 A. Hermansson

Vag-och Transportforskningsinstitut / Swedish Road and Traffic Institute (VTI) e-mail: ake. hermansson@vti. se

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_4, 69

© Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[7] Co-ordinating Author:

E3 A. R. Dawson

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK e-mail: andrew. dawson@nottingham. ac. uk

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8.5, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[8] In British English, bitumen refers to the binder in an asphaltic material whereas in American En­glish the term asphalt-cement is normally used, or simply ‘asphalt’. In this book the term bitumen is used to describe the binder and the word asphalt (which in British English refers to the whole mixture) is not used alone, to avoid confusion.

[9] AAD is one of the core SHRP bitumen binders

[10] PG = Penetration Grade

[11] 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Months since opening

[12] Co-ordinating Authors:

ISIL. Folkeson

Statens vag – och transportforskningsinstitut/Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

e-mail: lennart. folkeson@vti. se IE3 T. B^kken

Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning/Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) e-mail: torleif. baekken@niva. no

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_6, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[13] The use of the word ‘particle’ here is to differentiate the type of chemical component being exchanged from protons and electrons which are much smaller. It is not used to indicate a solid and visible particle (e. g. of sand) as elsewhere in the book.

[14] See previous footnote

[15] Alphanumeric codes are as used in Fig. 6.5

* Co-ordinating Authors:

23 T. Leitao

Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil / National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (LNEC), Portugal

e-mail: tleitao@lnec. pt

[17] A. R. Dawson

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK e-mail: andrew. dawson@nottingham. ac. uk

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_7, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[18] for runoff: FHWA (1987, 1996), Hamilton et al. (1991), Hvitved-Jacobsen & Yousef (1991), and Wanielsita & Yousef (1993);

• for surface water: Ruttner (1952), Krajca (1989), Environment Agency (1998);

• for groundwater, soil water and soil: Barcelona et al. (1985), Canter et al. (1987), Nielsen (1991), Clark (1993) and Boulding (1995).

[19] extract metals of the exchangeable and acid extractable fraction (using CH3 COOH 0.11 M);

• extract metals of the reducible fraction (using NH2OH, HCl 0.1 M; pH 2);

[20] Co-ordinating Author:

R. Charlier

University of Liege, Belgium e-mail: robert. charlier@ulg. ac. be

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_8, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[21] water entered through the joints between the slabs;

• the water softened the supporting layers allowing the slab to deflect under traffic;

• the increased dynamic movement of the slab when trafficked caused a “pumping” action by which water was rapidly displaced from the pores in the supporting material;

[22] Co-ordinating Author:

E3 L. Laloui

Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland email: lyesse. laloui@epfl. ch

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_9, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[23] An elastic (resilient) model with a modulus depending on the stress and suction level. A rigorous development should lead to a hyper-elastic model. Such a model would be sufficient for routine pavement design. It seems not to exist at present.

• Improving the available models, such as the Chazallon-Hornych, the Suiker or the Mayoraz models, implies the addition of yield/potential surfaces and a de­pendency on the suction. The elastic stress space, lying inside the yield surface would be higher for high suction; wetting would reduce the elastic domain and then increases the irreversible strains that occur under each load cycle.

[24] Co-ordinating Author:

EE3 C. Cekerevac Stucky SA, Switzerland e-mail: ccekerevac@stucky. ch

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8.10, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[25] Co-ordinating Author:

R. Charlier

University of Liege, Belgium e-mail: robert. charlier@ulg. ac. be

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_11, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[26] This concerns Galerkin’s approximation. For advection dominated problems, other weighting functions have to be used.

[27] Co-ordinating Author:

IE3 M. Brencic

Geoloski zavod Slovenije/Geological Survey of Slovenia e-mail: mihael. brencic@geo-zs. si

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_12, © Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[28] Co-ordinating Author:

23 J. S. Faisca

Estradas de Portugal/Roads of Portugal, Portugal e-mail: jose. faisca@estradasdeportugal. pt

A. R. Dawson (ed.), Water in Road Structures, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8562-8_13, 299

© Springer Science+Business Media B. V. 2009

[29] This can be said because, under vertical flow, there is a hydraulic gradient of1 so the Darcy flow velocity has the same numeric value as the coefficient of permeability.

[30] Typically soakaways should be able to cope with water flow from a two-year return period ‘high’ (or other agreed return period).

[31] deep GBR on side slopes – where the GBR is installed under the drainage col­lection system and covers the entire slope as well as the ditch area (Fig. 13.35);

[32] Standard terminology has been adopted for pavement layers in EN standards and these are given here. In parentheses are given the traditional terms

This section provides general designs of the final elements the water runs through before going to existing water bodies.

B.6.1 Retention Ponds/Кексіves стггукрat^ct^s

Language

Item no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

English

retention pond

inlet

throttle pipe

outlet

minimum level

operating depth

overflow pipe

German

Regenruckhaltebecken

Zulauf

Drosselrohr

Ablauf

tiefstes Absenkziel

Stauhohe

Uberlaufrohr

Spanish

cubeta de retencion

entrada

tuberia de regulacion de nivel

desagiie

nivel minimo

profundidad de trabajo

tuberia de desbordamiento

French

bassin de retention

arrivee

valve pointeau

sortie

niveau le plus bas

niveau de fonctionnement

tuyau de trop plein

Italian

bacino di ritenzione

ingresso

condotta di strozzamento

uscita

livello minimo

profondita’ di esercizio

condotta di sfioro

Greek

Лєкау^ on^KpaT^CT^s

Eiao8os

ХшХт) vas a^oaTpct 77ia^s

E^o8os

EX(ixiCTTo ern-^eSo

Ba0os XeiTonp^ias

XwXt) vas n^epxeiXia^s

B.6.2 Soakaways/Аушуоі а^аушуі]s o^Ppiwv

Language

Item no.

1

2

3

4

English

porous wall

void

access cover

inlet pipe

German

durchlassige Wand

Hohlraum

Schachtabdeckung

Zulaufrohr

Spanish

pared porosa

hueco

recinto cerrado de acceso

tuberia de entrada

French

mur poreux

vide

acces superieur

conduite d’arrivee

Italian

muro poroso

vuoto

copertura di accesso

condotta d’ingresso

Greek

Дютсерата touxco|хата

Ker>o

KaXv^^a етсткеф^?

SwXiqvas еишэ8ov

Polish

sciana porowata

komora

wlaz

rura wlotowa

Portuguese

Parede porosa

Vazios

Tampa de acesso

Colector de entrada

Serbian

Porozni zid

Otvor sahta

Poklopac sahta

Dovodna cev

Slovenian

perforirana stena

jasek

pokrov jaska

dovodna cev

Danish

vandgennemtrangelige sider

hulrum

d^ksel

indlobsrar