FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

STAIRS

Handrails

 

Handrails provide stability and security for the young, the old, the blind, and the infirm. In addition, handrails are a safety feature for anyone who uses a stairway—one of the most likely and dangerous places for people to trip and fall.

In terms of safety, the most important design feature of a handrail is its ability to be grasped, especially in an emergency. The іУз-іп. to 2-in. round rail is the most effective in this regard, as it allows the thumb and fin­gers to curl around and under the rail. Other shapes are allowable by code, but are less graspable.

The height of the handrail is usually specified by code. Most codes fall within the range of 29 in. to 36 in. above the nosing of the stairs. If the handrail is against a wall, a 1 Уз-in. space is required between the handrail and the wall.

The tops and bottoms of handrails should be designed so as to avoid snagging clothing. For this reason, many codes require returning handrails to the wall at both top and bottom.

 

HANDRAiL LAGGED TO BLOCKiNG THROUGH SPACER

1V2-IN. SPACER (MiN.) BLOCKiNG

interior finish wall

 

Handrail Screwed to Wall through Spacer

 

IV2-IN. SPACE (MIN.)

HANDRAIL

METAL BRACKET

BLOCKING

INTERIOR FINISH WALL

 

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

Open Balustrade

 

Handrail Attached to Wall with Metal Brackets

 

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

Closed Balustrade

 

Traditional Handrail on Open Balustrade

 

^ HANDRAILS

 

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADEFREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADEFREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

Exterior stairs made of wood should be built of weather-resistant species such as cedar or redwood or of pressure-treated lumber. Simple connections that minimize joints between boards are less likely to retain moisture. Where joints must occur, it is best to mini­mize the area of contact between pieces so that mois­ture will drain and the lumber can breathe.

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADEMost exterior wood stairs are freespanning. For long runs of stairs, the continuous unnotched carriage is usually required for strength (see 222B & D). Short runs of freespanning stairs may be strong enough with a notched carriage (see 222C). The notched carriage is, of course, also suitable for wood stairs built between two parallel concrete or masonry walls.

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

Подпись: EXTERIOR WOOD STAIRS Introduction Подпись: EXTERIOR WOOD STAIRS Unnotched Carriage/Wood Porch

Open risers are often employed in exterior wood stairs, but solid risers, common on traditional porches, are useful to stiffen the treads. For wood porches, and decks, see 52-60.

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE
FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADEПодпись:Подпись: 2X8 RISER ALLOWS 7V2-IN. RISE.Подпись:FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADERiM JOiST OF PORCH

HEADER JOiST AT TOP OF STAiR CARRiAGE 2 X 12 NOTCHED CARRiAGE ALLOws

adequate structure only for short and medium freespanning stair runs.

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

EXTERIOR WOOD STAIRS

Notched Carriage/Wood Porch

EXTERIOR WOOD STAIRS

Freespanning Carriage at Ground

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

The rabbeted riser/side-header joint is nailed from

 

two directions to lock the joint together.

 

HEADER AT SIDE

of step

 

BRiCK

step

 

BRiCK (OR CONCRETE PAGERS)

 

2X PRESSURE-TREATED OR DECAy-RESiSTANT HEADER RiPPED TO RiSER HEiGHT & ATTACHED AT Ends To walls or HEADER

 

RiSER

 

nail joint through

RiSER & SIDE HEADER

 

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The sides of the brick steps

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

 

FREESPANNING-STAIR BALUSTRADE

compacted rock base or self-compacting pea gravel

 

The sides of the steps may be contained with 2x headers the same height as the riser, as shown below. These side headers may be staked to the ground so that they contain the step at the sides on their own.

 

A third alternative is to contain the sides of the steps with decay-resistant stringers at the slope of the steps. The risers may be attached directly to the stringers.