TOENAILING BASICSПодпись: Bottom plate Start the nail at a 60° angle, about 1 in. from the end of the board. Подпись: When it's not possible to drive a nail directly through one piece of wood and into another, join them with a toenail.Driving a couple of nails through the side of one 2x into the edge or face of another creates a strong connection. This is a good way to join two 2xs at a right angle. But sometimes this isn’t possible, either because the board is too thick or because its face is not exposed. That’s when you resort to driving a nail at an angle, or toenailing.

To toenail two boards together, hold the nail at a 60-degree angle and start it about 1 in. from the end of the board. If the nail angle is not correct, the connection between the two pieces of wood will not be as strong. Back up the wood with your foot to hold the board in place as you toenail. With practice, you’ll soon gain skill, speed, and confidence.

Подпись: The girders that support the joists need to break over a post. [Photo by Don Charles Blom]

attaches to the pier post and holds it in position. Secure a TT-in.-thick pressure-treated pad to the top of the pier if the posts will be cut from untreated lumber. You can measure for the post’s length just as you measured for the crib wall’s studs, stretching a line above a piece of girder stock placed on the pier. Cut your posts to length, then secure them directly to the piers or toenail them to the blocks attached to the piers. Make sure the posts are plumb and paral­lel to one another.

Girders must butt together over a post. When the end of a girder fits into a pocket in the foun­dation, you’ll have to shim up the girder to get the top surface level with the top of the sill. The shims used beneath girders will bear the full weight of the floor, so they must be cut carefully from pressure-treated stock. Cut uniformly thick shims instead of tapered ones and make them large enough to fit in the bottom of the founda­tion pocket. Rather than foundation pockets, we inserted a metal 4x post base in the footing next to the stem wall to hold the end of the girder.

Подпись: Plywood gussets tie girders securely to their post supports. [Photo by Don Charles Blom] Подпись: Patterns save time. When cutting multiple identical pieces of framing mem-bers, such as joists, it is common to use a pattern piece. Cut one piece to the correct length, then lay it on top of the next piece to be cut and mark that one. Write the word “pattern” on the original piece. Подпись: Because of concrete’s ability to absorb mois-ture, code requires that the end of the girder be held about Vi in. away from the back of the pocket when cutting the girder to fit. If you’re not using pressure-treated stock for the girder, you can wrap the end of the girder with builder’s felt or sheet metal to give it some protection against moisture damage. Toenail the girders to the posts with either four 8d or three 16d nails. Now brace the posts and splice the girders by nailing the plywood gussets on both sides of the joint (see the illustration on p. 48). STEP 6 INSTALL THE JOISTS Подпись: Joists span a house from edge to edge, providing support (and a nailing surface) for the subfloor and a platform for the walls. Many older houses were built with undersized joists that were unable to keep floors and ceilings from sagging. Building codes today help ensure that joist sizing and spacing are more than adequate to keep floors rock solid yet resilient. Joists are normally spaced to allow for the most efficient use of full-size (4-ft. by 8-ft.) sheets of OSB or plywood. Joists cut from 2x lumber are generally spaced 16 in. or 24 in. o.c. Engineered wood I-joists can be spaced on centers of 12 in., 16 in., 19.2 in., or 24 in.Solid lumber versus engineered I-joists

Up until 20 years ago, most of the floors in this country were built with standard 2x joists. These days, more floors are being built with engineered I-joists. So named because of their “I” profile, I-joists have plywood top and bottom chords connected by an OSB web (see the top left photo on p. 62). They offer several advan­tages over solid lumber. Being an engineered product, they are knot-free and can span long distances without interior support. I-joists don’t


Volunteers who help build Habitat houses use only hammers to drive nails. But these days, buildings are nailed together with all kinds of pneumatic nailers. These are good, reliable tools, available for framing, finish work, siding, and shingling. However, there are basic safety considerations to keep in mind.

■ Treat a pneumatic nailer with respect. Be mindful of what you are doing. Never point a nailer at yourself or at others.

■ Read and follow the instruction manual regarding its maintenance and use.

■ Don’t walk around with your finger on the trigger. You could acci­dentally fire a nail.

■ Adjust the air pressure as needed. Larger nails require more pressure.

■ Wear safety glasses or goggles.

■ Disconnect the nailer from the air compressor before clearing a jammed nail.

■ When nailing on a sidewall, don’t hold the nailer in front of your face. Hitting a metal strap or other hardware beneath the surface could cause the nailer to recoil into your face with considerable force.

■ Drain moisture from the compressor tank after using it. A rusty, compromised tank can explode under pressure.

■ No one under 18 years of age should use a pneumatic nailer.

■ Pneumatic nailers should only be used by a trained professional or an experienced volunteer under supervision.

Updated: 13 ноября, 2015 — 5:06 пп